Working and Playing with Words

Remember how we were taught to spell when we were students? Many of us were simply handed a list of words and told to write each word five times. We then had our Friday spelling test, after which we may have forgotten those very words.

Remember how we were taught to decipher new words we encountered when reading? I can still hear my teachers saying, “Just sound it out!”

Of course, we were also taught some reading and spelling rules such as, “When two vowels go walking, the first one does the talking.” But did you know that this rule, like many others that we were taught, holds true less than fifty percent of the time? (Clymer, 1996) Not only do these precepts lack reliability, but the teaching of rules is not really the best way to help our students learn. We learn best by active involvement and practice with the task at hand, which allow us to see word and letter patterns for ourselves. Research suggests that the brain is a pattern detector, rather than an applier of rules (Cunningham, 2004). If our brains are indeed “pattern detectors,” then we should provide our students with plenty of opportunity to investigate and organize those patterns.

Fortunately, we are now seeing dramatic and exciting changes in the teaching of spelling and word recognition. The field of “word study” provides students an opportunity to manipulate words (and parts of words) in meaningful and enjoyable activities and games. Reading ability can develop dramatically as word study lessons develop experience with:

  • Letters and their corresponding sounds.
  • Components of words, such as roots, prefixes, and suffixe
  • Patterns of how words are spelled, such as word families.
  • How parts of words often will give hints to the meaning of a word, as well as its spelling or pronunciation.

Word study activities call for active problem solving. Students are encouraged to look for spelling patterns, form hypotheses, predict outcomes, and test them. These activities require students to continually ask themselves, “What do I know about this new word, and how is it similar to words that I already know?”

My students love working with words, and frequently ask for more “word games.” Fortunately, the Internet is a wonderful source of excellent activities that build skills in spelling, vocabulary, and word recognition.

See our Word Study Activities that will help your students have fun as they learn to read, write, and spell.

See our Articles on High-Frequency Sight Words

High-Frequency Sight Words: The Fry List, Instant Words, Dolch Words, and Word Wall Words
Practice with Abstract Sight Words
More on Practice with Sight Words
Betsy B. Lee on Teaching Dolch Words
Dolch’s List of Basic Sight Words
Fry’s 300 Instant Sight Words

See our Articles on Word Families

Introduction to Word Families
The 37 most common word families and how they can be used
For professionals: More thoughts on phonograms


Excellent Word Study References

I use and recommend all of these resources:

Words Their Way: Word Study for Phonics, Vocabulary, and Spelling Instruction (3rd Edition) Words Their Way: Word Study for Phonics, Vocabulary, and Spelling Instruction (3rd Edition), Donald R. Bear, $5.99

Word Journeys: Assessment-Guided Phonics, Spelling, and Vocabulary Instruction Word Journeys: Assessment-Guided Phonics, Spelling, and Vocabulary Instruction, Kathy Ganske Phd, $15.99

Building Words: A Resource Manual for Teaching Word Analysis and Spelling Strategies Building Words: A Resource Manual for Teaching Word Analysis and Spelling Strategies, Thomas G. Gunning, $15.00

Word Matters: Teaching Phonics and Spelling in the Reading/Writing Classroom Word Matters: Teaching Phonics and Spelling in the Reading/Writing Classroom, Irene Fountas, $43.62

Teaching Phonics & Word Study in the Intermediate Grades: A Complete Sourcebook (Scholastic Teaching Strategies) Teaching Phonics & Word Study in the Intermediate Grades: A Complete Sourcebook (Scholastic Teaching Strategies), Wiley Blevins, $24.40

Phonics They Use: Words for Reading and Writing (4th Edition) Phonics They Use: Words for Reading and Writing (4th Edition), Patricia M. Cunningham, $1.50

Systematic Sequential Phonics They Use: For Beginning Readers of All Ages Systematic Sequential Phonics They Use: For Beginning Readers of All Ages, Patricia M. Cunningham, $93.79

Making Words, Grades 1 - 3: Multilevel, Hands-On Phonics and Spelling Activities Making Words, Grades 1 - 3: Multilevel, Hands-On Phonics and Spelling Activities, Patricia M. Cunningham, $9.48

Making More Words: Multilevel, Hands-On Phonics and Spelling Activities (Making Words) Making More Words: Multilevel, Hands-On Phonics and Spelling Activities (Making Words), Patricia M Cunningham, $2.00

Making Big Words: Multilevel, Hands-On Spelling and Phonics Activities (A Good Apple Language Arts Activity Book for Grades 3-6) Making Big Words: Multilevel, Hands-On Spelling and Phonics Activities (A Good Apple Language Arts Activity Book for Grades 3-6), Patricia M. Cunningham, $11.75

Making More Big Words: Multilevel, Hands-on Phonics and Spelling Activities Making More Big Words: Multilevel, Hands-on Phonics and Spelling Activities, Patricia M. Cunningham, $3.00

 

Patricia M. Cunningham and Dorothy P. Hall designed these popular activities that appeal to students of all ages. Your earliest and most challenged readers, however, may find them too difficult.For those students, I recommend:
Easy Lessons for Teaching Word Families: Hands-on Lessons That Build Phonemic Awareness, Phonics, Spelling, Reading, and Writing Skills Easy Lessons for Teaching Word Families: Hands-on Lessons That Build Phonemic Awareness, Phonics, Spelling, Reading, and Writing Skills, Judy Lynch, $13.79

Month-By-Month Reading, Writing, and (Professional Resources Series) Month-By-Month Reading, Writing, and (Professional Resources Series), Dorothy P. Hall, $7.50

Month-by-Month Phonics for First Grade: Systematic, Multilevel Instruction Month-by-Month Phonics for First Grade: Systematic, Multilevel Instruction, Patricia M. Cunningham, $5.99

Month-By-Month Phonics for Second Grade: Systematic, Multilevel Instruction for Second Grade Month-By-Month Phonics for Second Grade: Systematic, Multilevel Instruction for Second Grade, Dorothy Hall, $4.99

Month-By-Month Phonics for Third Grade: Systematic, Multilevel Instruction Month-By-Month Phonics for Third Grade: Systematic, Multilevel Instruction, Patricia Cunningham, $8.00

Month-by-Month Phonics for Upper Grades: A Second Chance for Struggling Readers and Students Learning English Month-by-Month Phonics for Upper Grades: A Second Chance for Struggling Readers and Students Learning English, Patricia M. Cunningham, $10.75


References

Clymer, T. (1996). The utility of phonic generalizations in the primary grades. The Reading Teacher, 50(3), pp.182-187.
Cunningham, P. (2004).

New York: Longman.